Climate change is no longer a future threat. The associated risks have already had a devastating impact on the financial sector.

Financial institutions are financially exposed to the physical risks associated with more frequent severe weather events, as well as the transition risks associated with the changes necessary to achieve a low-carbon economy. Mortgage, commercial

The Liquidity Coverage Ratio (LCR) was introduced with the implementation of Basel III, and is designed to ensure that financial institutions have the necessary assets on hand to ride out short-term liquidity disruptions. Two important elements of the LCR that are especially relevant to South African banks are:

1.   The LCR in South Africa was

The SA Reserve Bank is adopting a wait-and-see approach.

The Volcker Rule came into force in the US in April 2014. The Volcker Rule is a federal regulation under the Dodd-Frank Act that, subject to exceptions, prohibits US commercial banks from engaging in short-term proprietary trading of many financial instruments for their own account. The

The European Union, the USA and Canada have imposed sanctions on a number of Russian and Ukrainian individuals and legal entities. The nature and scope of the sanctions are explained in this briefing.

If a bank has entered into credit risk mitigation arrangements with Russian or Ukrainian counterparties, or relating to Russian or Ukrainian assets,